De esta manera estos territorios-reinos eran aparentemente independientes, y no han de ser considerados ni como provincias ni como reinos incorporados como es el caso del reino de Navarra.
Un saludo. Trasamundo , 19 April UTC. Sei tudo o disseste e concordo contigo. Esto realmente no se sustenta, porque:. Y yo por mi parte acabo este discurso, que espero que no haya sido pesado, sino ilustrativo y desmitificador. Que me dizem? Durero talk , 2 October UTC. Hello to everybody in this interesting discussion.
Despite been spaniard, I prefer to writte my comments in english since I have notice there are english, spanish and portuguese speakers on the discussion. Unfortunately, the major issue, to include or not the portuguese empire into a map of spanish empire, is covering other relevant details of the map that I consider wrong: - The southern coast of Newfoundland Island is included as part of Spanish Empire. Since I never have found evidence of spanish colonization of such an island in any historical period or, at least, a concrete territorial claim on such a portion of land, I suggest it should be erased from the map.
I'm graduated in Hispanic Philology and I also obtained a certificate passed with distinction for teaching Spanish as a foreign language to adults after a course I followed at International House Mexico City.
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I've been teaching Spanish for nine years one year online and I've been also a certified DELE examiner for more than three years. In my online classes I help learners achieve their objectives by providing well prepared materials and bearing in mind their needs. If you're taking a DELE exam, you can be sure to successfully prepare all its components, especially the speaking interview. Saiba mais. Aulas Aula experimental. A very competent and professional teacher, very attentive on my goals and my objectives.
Then, under favorable conditions, the system would be capable of regulating itself. We highlight that the complexity is not only to observe morphological, syntactic and phonological aspects: a complex system goes beyond other non-linguistic strata psychological, contextual, etc.
These characteristics impose dynamicity on the system. The changes that occurred would be the learning process itself triggered by the interaction.
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However, the reorganization of this system can present certain preferences related to either state. Systems change over time, leading to behaviors that are not only a sum of conducts of individual components: but result from the interactions with other agents. Systems have fractals which are "variables that may affect the system in unpredictable ways, [ The authors describe, based on the metaphorical use of topographic and spatial images, the landscape condition of a complex system as a representation of a state space.
It is a collection of potential conditions of a system. Each point is described in a particular group of parameter values, including not only the conditions that may occur, but also those which are not and may never be manifested: it is possible, in practice, that the system is not present in all potential conditions. Complex systems have control parameters that would be patterns capable to affect its trajectory and, so, to influence especially the transitional phases.
So, it can be described the so-called preferences of a system in a landscape of possibilities, the attractors: regions into which the system tends to move. As the system changes, presenting a new behavior or attractor state, the "ball" metaphorical representation of the system moves towards a valley into a landscape. For this reason attractors have the strength to produce the order in a dynamic system by constraining the system into a certain region of its space-state-landscape. As valleys may be shallow or deep, the greatest depth will require more energy so that the "ball" moves.
There is stability in the resistance to external disturbances: a stable system will not change its landscape simply due to a "push". Systems always have co-adaptation processes. These processes, according to Larsen-Freeman and Cameron , would be a type of mutual causality in which changes in a system result in changes in others and so forth.
With respect to the nature of the context, there is a change: it is included physical, social, cognitive and cultural aspects, which are inherent in the system. These soft assemblies are the basis for this emerging change. For this reason attractors arise from adaptive experiences occurred in the context, leading to a higher level of social organization. Thus, these factors will be necessarily present in the development of interlanguage IL. The interlanguage: an attractor in the landscape.
It should be noted that studies of IL were highlighted by the article "Interlanguage", published by Larry Selinker Nevertheless, there were several nomenclatures and concepts that tried to describe the same phenomenon. Silva, A. For Paiva, the new complexity perspective.
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For these reasons, the initial conditions of the system are important for the understanding and analysis of the IL: previous experiences influence or determine the behaviors of the system. Nick C. Ellis draws a parallel between theories of the second language L2 acquisition and IL studies. For the author, both are stages of a dynamic and complex system. Thus, the recognition of the L2 acquisition as an emergent process marks the beginning of a new era in AL studies. In the IL, generalizations and statistical abstractions characterizing personal growth are verified, and, for this reason, the variability should be observed.
Nevertheless, Ellis emphasizes the latent need to explain regularities as well. If there is no device, any feasible alternative should be sought to explain why common patterns of development in different kinds of learners under diverse conditions may occur. There is no anarchy or chaos, but dynamic patterns of use that manifest themselves, leading to a complex and adaptive systematization.
That is why Larsen-Freeman and Cameron presume that the previous language experience, normally referred to as transfer, produces multiple effects on the FL learning process. In complexity,. For Philip Herdina and Ulrike Jessner , the transfer is generally taken to mean the transfer of the same structures from L1 to L2 that may have positive or negative effects on the learning process.
Interference would refer to those phenomena which are not reducible to either of language systems involved, but it is related to the language processing, rather than language structure. Both are included in the concept of cross-linguistic interaction. Like systems, feedback is also non-linear once it embodies an essential tension between order and chaos. For this reason, it can turn the simplest activity into the complex efflorescence of a fireworks display, creating qualitative changes that characterize non-linear and complex systems.
According to Herdina and Jessner , nowadays researchers feel the futility of studying parts in isolation from the whole in the most of sciences. This happens because order, chaos, complexity and wholeness are all tied together: complex systems, both chaotic and orderly ones, are irreducible into parts because each element is folded into each other by feedback and iterations.
It must be added that a number of factors determine systems stability which depends on the condition of the language system in transition or relatively stable. The speaker's expectations concerning future language requirements have an effect on the stability, as well as the proximity of the systems involved, given that it is defined as a function of the competition between systems which affects the degree of interference. This is because. Transfer on the other hand is defined as a function of the distance between the two or more systems [ Thus, as stated by Larsen-Freeman and Cameron , it is extremely important to observe the initial conditions of the system: the previous language experience will always affect and shape the current experience in several significant ways.
In complexity, the transfer is defined as the interference by the prior knowledge of a certain language in the FL experience, being it the first, second, third and fourth language. Methodological procedures.
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For this research, ethnographic approaches were used insofar as it enables a detailed examination of the holistic nature of the phenomenon observed AGAR, It was also used the principles of virtual ethnography by Hine, who considers that "the signification of a technology does not exist prior to the uses attributable to it, but it arises during its use" HINE, , p. This particularity highlights the dynamic and complex nature.
In Teletandem, the situation results from the paradigm shift falling directly and indirectly upon the social practices previously conceived by man. As states Valdir Silva , a new space is built, the cyberspace, where the man establishes new expansions of his social activity, creating new social relationships with specific structures and codes: it occurs the development and introduction of a new culture, the cyber culture, which requires researchers to adjust the ethnographic model "to this new reality due to natural effects produced by media" SILVA, V.
The system is highly changeable and due to the difficulty to list with mathematical precision all variables, an overview of the system operation can be done by observing data in their quality and, in this case, by triangulating them BURNS, The context of this research is the interaction in Teletandem between Portuguese-Spanish Teletandem pairs who met virtually. In the beginning of the Project mid , the partnership was established between college students related to language teaching.
However, subsequently, this continued to be the focus with respect to Brazilian students, but the foreign interactants did not need to attend teaching and education courses. Before interaction, students are required to read a "manual" with suggestions for Teletandem practice. When she participated in Teletandem , she was attending the second year at college. Dani took the sessions at the Teletandem laboratory where she worked as a monitor. She was also engaged in an academic internship program in which the interactions were the corpus.
The mediation, established by me, was done every three or four weeks of interactions. Eros, on his turn, is a food engineer and he was interested in Portuguese because he was pursuing a scholarship to obtain his Master's in Brazil.