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How it works Superlofts combine modular design with prefabrication methods in a diverse mix of loft types and flexible programs that can easily adapt over time. The above-mentioned 20 factors are to cover a broad range Chapters 1 and 2 in this book will assess design quality in both of essential design characteristics of a housing development the Netherlands and the United Kingdom with the respective and relate to the four factors as follows.
Character refers to evaluation tools as promoted by each government. Evaluations the identity and composition of a scheme, taking into account of design quality in the Netherlands will, therefore, be divided topography and landscape, wayfinding, layout and distinc- into the seven characteristics from the Fifth National Policy tive architectural quality.
Roads, parking and pedestrianisa- Document on Spatial Planning. Evaluations of design quality in tion refers to the often-overlooked provision of wide and safe the United Kingdom will be divided into the four characteristics streets, public spaces, pedestrian routes and adequate cycle of the CABE Housing Audit. Design and construction includes well-considered inter- nal and external spaces with good proportions.
This category also ensures that new housing is suitable for the occupier and conforms to building regulations. Environment and community refers to easy access to public transport, appropriate local infra- structure, the planning of community facilities and services. The case studies in this book from the United Kingdom have accord- ingly been assessed under these four design quality headings pages 97— As this book demonstrates, many The Netherlands boasts a large number of very high-quality new new houses in the Netherlands have been constructed on large housing developments and has a history of well-designed and dis- brownfield sites.
These include the former military airport at tinctive housing. The Dutch government has played a major role Ypenburg, the former docks at the Eastern Harbour District, or in the delivery of new housing and has made design quality an on reclaimed land such as the artificial islands of Ijburg. Other important part of government policy. This can be seen in the role new housing developments have been constructed on green- of the government, which is anchored in the constitutional provi- field sites on farmland outside existing towns such as Vathorst sion to promote and guarantee sufficient availability and quality and Leidsche Rijn.
Jonathan Woodroffe, ity of housing in the Netherlands is a result of a consensus cul- an architect working in the Netherlands, argues: ture. Hans Ibelings, in The Artificial Landscape: Contemporary Architecture, Urbanism, and Landscape Architecture in the Only one per cent of what is being built here is avant- Netherlands asserts that Dutch consensus has led to the protec- garde. Many Vinex housing projects have caused controversy lective values. This expres- The fundamental aims of the Vinex operation are not sion derives from the word polder, or reclaimed land, which achieved.
The built fabric is not compact.
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The range of describes the historical cultivation of the land from the sea. The problem of all citizens can contribute to their environment. The Netherlands personal transport is simply aggravated by the total car- consists of twelve municipalities each with local responsibilities dependence.
Sustainability loses out, with minimal house for areas such as the environment, spatial planning and traffic. Municipalities are responsible for drawing Due to a rising population and the demand for smaller and up urban development plans of the design of new housing and more spacious dwellings there is a housing shortage in the choosing and appointing design teams.
Municipalities also set Netherlands. It is estimated that between and an the requirement of 70 per cent private housing and 30 per cent additional , new dwellings will have to be built to meet social housing. Partnership models in the Netherlands between the municipality, the community and the developer have been established to provide a separation of roles to avoid confusion and conflicts of interest.
There is a projectbureau, a small multi- disciplinary project team, in every town that is responsible for the coordination of major housing projects. Voluntary panels of experts are established jointly by local authorities and develop- ment companies and operate as a quality control team judg- ing the quality of design on new housing developments.
The concept of an integrated framework is also seen in a This polder model also accommodates radical proposals, regulated planning process in which the public often plays a although in practice they are often smothered in compro- role in the development and quality of the built environment. The Dutch could be said to have an over- quality of their environment.
For example, in , the Spatial developed craving for consensus which means not only Planning Act on the openness of public in administration Wet that the proposals of architects, urban planners, and land- openbaarheid van bestuur contained rules about how citizens scape architects are usually less spectacular in execution involved in a planning application in new developments in their than in conception, but also that their implementation is local area could make their opinion heard about a key decision often dogged by lengthy delays. What is lacking in the that a public body intended to make.
Dutch culture of consultation and negotiation is decisive- ness and promptness of action. In theory, the consensus culture con- Netherlands in the s, Dutch culture opened up to new pos- cept is an attractive model, which aims to give an equal voice to sibilities for experimentation. This led to the development of a highly politicised public. In turn, this led to public protests opposing large construction projects such as the city hall and opera house developments in Amsterdam. The Dutch govern- ment, further exasperated by criticism of recently completed housing projects, began to re-address its urban and architectural policy.
They fought back because the public cared that their cities were being disfigured and because the discussion about the qualities of urban space was picked up by critics and their readers. Making a collective space has always been a central part of what the Dutch did. Collaboration also often means that projects take a long time to develop whilst waiting for decisions about gov- ernment subsidies and public consultation. Peter Boelhouwer, professor of housing at Delft University, argues that developers face particular problems in gaining planning approval due to the length of time municipal authorities take to reach decisions, the lengthy negotiations with local councils, the inadequate skills of council staff and procedures associated with local plans.
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In reality, collaboration is experimenting with new architectural concepts. The quality of housing in the Netherlands set up their own offices and developed their own innovative has, however, benefited from a consensus culture and this has approaches to housing design. Alejandro Zaero-Polo, of the led to the creation of excellent standards and quality control.
As architectural practice Foreign Office Architects, was inspired by the new housing developments in this book demonstrate, a con- the Dutch approach to architecture when he was working as an sensus culture has led to open attitudes towards design quality employee of OMA in the Netherlands and attributes the success and the successful creation of new housing.
In The Artificial Landscape petent authorities. This has developed through a number of government-promoted events and architectural Many Dutch architecture practices have successfully com- centres. These include the International Biennale Rotterdam a bined theory with construction projects.
Rem Koolhaas and biennial architectural event exhibiting work in the disciplines of his firm OMA have been at the forefront of Dutch architecture architecture, urban design and landscape architecture , and the since the early s, when the firm established itself with a Amsterdam Centre for Architecture ARCAM , founded in , number of ground-breaking international competition entries which led to the establishment of other Dutch architectural 12 Design Quality in the Netherlands.
In addition, the Netherlands Policy for architectural quality Architectural Institute NAI was constructed in Rotterdam in as a cultural centre and a venue to host architectural Government policy in the Netherlands has been a key factor in exhibitions. An estimated , people visit the Netherlands influencing new housing.
Design quality in housing has been Architecture Institute every year. The Architecture in the Netherlands Yearbook also plays A number of major events have affected the development of an important informative role in educating professionals and quality housing in the Netherlands. The twentieth century was clients about developments in Dutch housing.
The yearbook dominated by the influence of the Housing Act. This Act selects around entries and the editors choose 60 projects to legislated for the right for all Dutch citizens to decent-quality visit, with 36 projects documented in detail. It introduced important instruments for intervening in the procurement of social housing and also introduced new There are also government grants awarded for architec- building regulations to improve and monitor the quality of hous- ture publications, exhibitions and architectural centres such as ing construction and space standards.
The Act influenced the design first architectural policy as an independent national informa- and construction of new housing and urban planning. The most tion centre for individual citizens, private companies and local well-known expansion plan was H. Berlage for Amsterdam authorities. The foundation aims to promote the quality of the South, where large housing blocks were constructed with uni- built environment.
Local communities are encouraged by the form height, colour and materials.
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The local architecture centres act as a After World War II the Dutch government focused on a platform for the local communities and involved parties to share large-scale housing construction programme that delivered a experiences and information. These centres organise excur- significant number of rapidly produced houses.
A policy was sions, exhibitions and publications throughout the Netherlands. Many of these rapidly constructed houses were later criticised for their uniformity and poor build quality. Car parking is located underneath the building. A series of high-profile conferences, known as the AIR conferences Architecture International of Rotterdam , were held to which well-known architects were invited. These conferences encouraged government interest in design and design quality and as a result the government established a state budget allocated to exhibitions, research grants and bursaries. It has been suggested that this resulted in a young, active generation of architects collaborating with government members, civil servants, architectural historians and journalists.
An architectural policy was indirectly born from this debate and urban planning and infrastructure. This report sought to high- a discussion about design quality flourished as a result: light good design practice through demonstrating good design quality in built projects.
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The halls were In , the third architectural policy document was published, full to overflowing. Where previously only architects and entitled Designing in the Netherlands. The Dutch Government the odd critic had shown their face, now there were also wanted to meet the public demand for higher quality standards aldermen, public servants, housing associations, builders and shape urban renewal and as a result this document included and even one or two property developers.
The policy led to the establish- Netherlands and contained new policy requirements until It also lation will grow to approximately 18 million inhabitants, which provided the basis for the Netherlands Architecture Institute in would require the construction of up to two million new homes Rotterdam. This policy brought together culture and building by To tackle these ambitious proposals the Dutch govern- policy, and aimed to improve architecture and urban design. Space for Architecture deliber- countryside. The Dutch government also highlighted the need ately avoided making aesthetic judgements on architecture and for good design quality for the construction of these new homes instead sought to highlight good design practice through dem- both at a regional scale and for the private citizen: onstrating good design quality in built projects.
The space must not [be] allowed to become more the scope of the first policy to include landscape architecture, monotonous in order to provide citizens with an environment in which to live that meets their wishes and requirements. The government stipulated that a third of all new homes should be individually commissioned. Individual commissioning is a government-supported programme to allow individuals to acquire the quality of home they desire.
Under this programme one or more private individuals acquire land for themselves and commission architects and design professionals of their choice for the design and construction of their homes. The house buyer can choose from a range of variations, use of materials, size and construction methods.